Adjectives in English


What are adjectives in English? How is it used? Are adjectives in English the same as in Vietnamese? Let Taimienphi.vn answer the questions in the article below!


Learn adjectives in English

Table of Contents:
1. What are adjectives ?.
2. The position of the adjective.
3. Adjectives at the end are “-ing” and “-ed”.
4. Adjectives are used as nouns.
5. How to recognize adjectives.
6. How to form adjectives.
7. Types of adjectives.
8. The order of adjectives.
9. Comparison levels of adjectives.

1. What are adjectives?

Put simply, adjectives are words used to describe or modulate a noun. It provides detailed information for a noun, clarifying characteristics such as size, shape, color, … of an object, phenomenon, concept. Adjectives can also modify pronouns. It helps answer questions like which, how much, of whom, and what kind. Without adjectives, we would not be able to know what an object or phenomenon has characteristics like.

2. The position of the adjective

Adjectives usually precede the noun that they modify.
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When there are 2 or more adjectives modifying the same noun, they are usually separated by commas. Note, do not put a comma after the last adjective in the string from above.
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When there are two adjectives indicating color, we divide them by and.
Taimienphi’s members often wear red and white uniforms.
When the predicate has more than 2 adjectives, we use it and to connect the last 2 adjectives.
The admin of Taimienphi is handsome, intelligent and polite.
Sometimes, we can put adjectives behind nouns to emphasize them.
There lived an old man strong and wicked.

In some phrases, adjectives always precede nouns, such as:
Time-immemorial
Heir-apparent
God-almighty
President-elect

In poetry, adjectives are sometimes also placed behind nouns.
O! men with sisters dear!

3. Adjectives ending with “-ing” and “-ed”

fineness in English

Many adjectives are formed by adding -ing or -ed after the verb.

Adjective ends as -ing
For example: interesting, amusing, annoying, shocking, surprising, ….
When using thú vị (interesting) to talk about something, that means you feel the thing itself, it is very interesting.
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The adjective to the end is -ed
For example: bored, amused, annoyed, shocked, surprised, …..
If something makes you feel sad, you can use adjectives bored to express your feelings.
I have nothing to do now. I am really bored.

4. Adjectives are used as nouns

In some cases, a noun can be used as an adjective, depending on its position.
For example: Don’t try to pet his guide dog without his permission.
Guide is a noun. But in the above sentence, it modifies the word dog and plays the role of an adjective.
In other cases, adjectives can also be used as nouns, such as:
Minh is working as a volunteer to help the homeless.
In the above sentence, homeless act as a noun. It is very difficult to recognize this if you only think about specific word classes. In these cases, we do not just consider the word type, but also need to consider its function and meaning.

5. How to recognize adjectives

Most English language learners find that grammar is an extremely difficult part, as every rule has exceptions. Therefore, it can only be said that adjectives in English often end with the following suffixes:
– -able/ –ible: comfortable, flexible, resposible
– -al: legal, normal, dysfunctional
– -an: American, deadpan, draconian
– -ar: popular, vulgar, spectacular
– -ent: abhorrent, dependent, diligent
– -ful: delightful, faithful, powerful
– -ic / -ical: economical, panoramic, psychotic
– -ine: masculine, feminine, bovine
– -ile: fertile, agile, docile
– -ive: abortive, combative, productive
– -less: endless, timeless, careless
– -ous: dangerous, enormous, curious
– -some: handsome, awesome, wholesome

A lot of adjectives end in -y, -ary, -ate, -ed, and -ing. However, nouns and adverbs can also end with -y. Many nouns end with -ary. Nouns and verbs can also end with -ate. And verbs can also end with -ed and -ing. Therefore, to determine whether a word is an adjective, it is necessary to base its position on the sentence.

6. How to form adjectives

We can use the prefix / suffix to turn a noun or verb into an adjective, or to change the meaning of a specific adjective. Many suffixes have a specific meaning, while others only function to turn a word into an adjective, such as:
Suffixes -less usually means negative, while the suffix -ful usually means positive
– Hopeful (have hope) Hope =>Hopeless (hopeless)
However, not all words in English can form adjectives in this way. The best way is to use the dictionary to check the accuracy of the word.
– Homeless (homeless), but does not exist from homeful
– Beautiful (beautiful), but does not exist from beautiless
Suffixes -ish often used to turn nouns, adjectives into adjectives that mean “like” with something.
– Childish (like a child)
– Bluish color (like blue)
For words that refer to the material, a suffix may be added -en after nouns to form meaningful adjectives made of that material.
– Wooden chairs (wooden chairs)
– Woolen jumpers (sweater)
Many adjectives in English already have antonyms like big / small, tall / short, hot / cold, etc. But we can also use prefixes to form opposites. The most common prefix in this case is un-, dis-, and print-.
For example:
– Lucky – unlucky
– Honest – dishonest
– Correct – discorrect
Prefix il-, im-, and ir- Only used in some special cases. Il- before the word starting with l-, im- before the word starting with m- or p-; and ir- before the word starting with r-.
For example:
– Legal – illegal
– Patient – impatient, mature – immature
– Regular – irregular

7. Types of adjectives

In terms of position, adjectives are divided into 2 categories:
– Adjective adjective (attributive adjective): The adjective precedes the noun it describes.
– Taimienphi’s admin is an open-mined man.
– Adjective predicate (predicative adjective): The adjective behind verbs like be, become, seem, get, look, feel, …
– Taimienphi’s admin is open-minded.

In terms of semantics, adjectives are divided into categories:
– Descriptive adjectives (descriptive adjectives): beautiful, wonderful, lovely, ….
– Quantitative adjectives (quantitive adjectives): many, much, one, two, three, …
– Adjective adjective (demonstrative adjectives): this, that, these, those
– Positive adjectives (possessive adjectives): my / mine, his / his, her / hers, their / theirs, your / yours, our / ours
– Questionable adjectives (interrogative adjectives): which, what, whose
– Adjective distinguished (distributive adjective): each, every, either, neither, any, …
– Article: a, an, and the. Although articles are also a certain type, they are also considered adjectives in some cases.

8. The order of adjectives

When a list of adjectives must be listed in a sentence, they need to be listed in the order provided for. Native speakers have the ability to arrange in a natural order, but if you’re learning English, you’ll need to remember the following order:
– Definition (Determiner) – articles, numerical adjectives, possessive adjectives (my, his, her, its, your, our, their) and specified pronouns (this, that, these, those)
– Opinions / opinions (Opinion) – beautiful, delicious, pretty
– Size (Size): Small, big, huge
– Year old (Age): New, old, ancient
– Shape (Shape): Square, circular, triangle
– Color (Color): Red, white, yellow
– Source (Origin): Vietnamese, Chinese, American
– Material (Material): Silk, plastic, wooden
– Purpose (Purpose): working, learning, studying

For example: At Taimienphi’s office, there are many beautiful large square wooden working tables.

9. Comparison levels of adjectives

Adjectives usually have 3 forms, adjectives that indicate absolute degrees, adjectives that are comparative, and superlative. Absolute adjectives are the adjectives that have described the maximum level themselves.

Comparative adjectives help to compare between 2 objects. For single-syllable adjectives, comparative adjectives are formed by adding suffixes -er (or -r for adjectives that have ended with -e). For 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y, then we replace -y equal -ier. For adjectives with two or more syllables, there is an infinite ending -y, we add more in front of the adjective.

The superlative adjective helps to compare 3 or more objects. For single-syllable adjectives, the superlative adjectives are formed by adding suffixes -est (or only -st with adjectives that have ended with -e). For adjectives, there are 2 syllables ending in -y, instead -y equal -iest. With many syllable adjectives, add most in front of the adjective. The article used for the most comparative adjective is always the definite article the.

For example:

essential in English 2

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